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Knowledge Base: Anxiety

Scholarly Articles

The object of the experiment was to verify whether cannabidiol (CBD) reduces the anxiety provoked by delta 9-THC in normal volunteers, and whether this effect occurs by a general block of the action of delta 9-THC or by a specific anxiolytic effect. Appropriate measurements and scales were utilized and the eight volunteers received, the following treatments in a double-blind procedure: 0.5 mg/kg delta 9-THC, 1 mg/kg CBD, a mixture containing 0.5 mg/kg delta 9-THC and 1 mg/kg CBD and placebo and diazepam (10 mg) as controls. Each volunteer received the treatments in a different sequence. It was verified that CBD blocks the anxiety provoked by delta 9-THC, however this effect also extended to marihuana-like effects and to other subjective alterations induced by delta 9-THC. This antagonism does not appear to be caused by a general block of delta 9-THC effects, since no change was detected in the pulse-rate measurements. Several further effects were observed typical of CBD and of an opposite nature to those of delta 9-THC. These results suggest that the effects of CBD, as opposed to those of delta 9-THC, might be involved in the antagonism of effects between the two cannabinoids.

Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L

The antidepressant action of cannabis as well as the interaction between antidepressants and the endocannabinoid system has been reported. This study was conducted to assess the antidepressant-like activity of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids were initially evaluated in the mouse tetrad assay to determine doses that do not induce hypothermia or catalepsy. The automated mouse forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests were used to determine antidepressant action. At doses lacking hypothermic and cataleptic effects (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, i.p.), both Δ9-THC and Δ8-THC showed a U-shaped dose response with only Δ9-THC showing significant antidepressant-like effects at 2.5 mg/kg (p < 0.05) in the FST. The cannabinoids cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabinol (CBN) did not produce antidepressant-like actions up to 80 mg/kg in the mouse FST, while cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited significant effect at 20 and 200 mg/kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The antidepressant-like action of Δ9-THC and CBC was further confirmed in the TST. Δ9 -THC exhibited the same U-shaped dose response with significant antidepressant-like action at 2.5 mg/kg (p < 0.05) while CBC resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in immobility at 40 and 80 mg/kg doses (p < 0.01). Results of this study show that Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids exert antidepressant-like actions, and thus may contribute to the overall mood-elevating properties of cannabis.

Chronic blockade of cannabinoid CB2 receptors induces anxiolytic-like actions associated with alterations in GABAA receptors

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of CB2 receptor agonist and antagonist in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviours. Effects of acute and chronic treatment with the CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 were evaluated in the light-dark box (LDB) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests in Swiss ICR mice. CB2 receptor, GABAAa2 and GABAAg2 gene and protein expression in the cortex and amygdala of mice chronically treated with JWH133 or AM630 were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Effects of chronic AM630 treatment were evaluated in spontaneously anxious DBA/2 mice in LDB.

Antidepressant-Like and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Cannabidiol: A Chemical Compound of Cannabis sativa

Anxiety and depression are pathologies that affect human beings in many aspects of life, including social life, productivity and health. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a constituent non-psychotomimetic of Cannabis sativa with great psychiatric potential, including uses as an antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like compound. The aim of this study is to review studies of animal models using CBD as an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like compound. Studies involving animal models, performing a variety of experiments on the above-mentioned disorders, such as the forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict test (VCT), suggest that CBD exhibited an anti-anxiety and antidepressant effects in animal models discussed. Experiments with CBD demonstrated non-activation of neuroreceptors CB1 and CB2. Most of the studies demonstrated a good interaction between CBD and the 5-HT1A neuro-receptor.